English name: Encephalartos
Encephalartos, genus of 65 species of palmlike cycads in the family Zamiaceae, native to central and southern Africa. Several species are grown as conservatory and houseplants. The genus includes both tuberous and columnar varieties; they sometimes have spiny foliage. As gymnosperms, the plants have male and female reproductive structures in cones; the plants are dioeceious, meaning that male and female cones are borne on separate individuals. A breadlike food is prepared from the starchy centre of the stem of the bread palm (Encephalartos caffer). Most species of Encephalartos are endemic to small areas, and, because of their popularity in horticulture, many of these already uncommon species have been collected to the point of near extinction. Many are listed as endangered or critically endangered on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, and at least four are now extinct in the wild.