English name: Bottle Gourd
bottle gourd, (Lagenaria siceraria), also called white-flowered gourd or calabash gourd, running or climbing vine of the gourd family (Cucurbitaceae), native to tropical Africa but cultivated in warm climates around the world for its ornamental and useful hard-shelled fruits. The young fruits are edible and are usually cooked as a vegetable. The mature gourds are made into water bottles, dippers, spoons, pipes, and many other utensils and containers; they can also be fashioned into birdhouses, fancy ornaments, lamps, and musical instruments. Additionally, the vine’s showy white flowers and dense foliage make it a popular screen and ornamental plant.
Bottle gourd vines are quick-growing annuals with hairy stems, long forked tendrils, and a musky odour. Many forms of the bottle gourd have been cultivated for specific purposes, and the sizes of the vines, leaves, and flowers, as well as the sizes and shapes of the fruits, vary greatly. The forms are named for the shape of the fruit—e.g., club, dipper, dolphin, kettle, and trough. The fruits of some cultivated varieties may be more than 1 metre (about 3 feet) long. The plants may be grown easily from seed but require a long hot growing season to mature.