English name: Nasturtium
nasturtium, (Tropaeolum majus), also called Indian cress, annual plant of the family Tropaeolaceae, cultivated as an ornamental for its attractive leaves and flowers. The plant is native to the Andes Mountains of South America and is considered an invasive species in a few areas outside its native range. The peppery-tasting leaves and flowers are edible and can be used in salads or as a floral garnish. The young flower buds and fruit are sometimes used as seasoning. Unrelated, the genus Nasturtium consists of aquatic herbs of the family Brassicaceae (see watercress).
The plant can be compact or trailing in form and can be somewhat climbing with support. The brilliant yellow, orange, or red flowers are funnel-shaped and have a long spur that contains sweet nectar. The large green leaves are nearly circular with smooth or wavy margins and are peltate, meaning that the petiole (leaf stalk) is attached near the centre of the lower leaf surface. Each of the three segments of the trilobed fruit contains a single seed.
A number of other species in the genus Tropaeolum are also cultivated as garden plants. Dwarf nasturtium (Tropaeolum minus) has flowers 3 cm (1.2 inches) across or less. Shield nasturtium (T. peltophorum) is a climbing plant with orange-red flowers about 2.5 cm (1 inch) long. Canary creeper (T. peregrinum) is a climbing plant with frilly pale yellow flowers.