English name: Indian Pipe
Indian pipe, (Monotropa uniflora), also called ghost plant, corpse plant, convulsion root, or ghost pipe, nonphotosynthetic perennial herb of the heath family (Ericaceae). The plant is mycoheterotrophic, meaning it lives in close association with a fungus from which it acquires most of its nutrition. The fungus, in turn, lives in association with neighbouring beeches and other trees, and thus much of the energy that ultimately goes to the Indian pipe is a product of photosynthesis. Indian pipe occurs in Asia and throughout North America and parts of northern South America and is considered rare. It is usually found in moist shady areas.
The plant arises from a tangled mass of rootlets, grows 15–25 cm (6–10 inches) tall, and, lacking chlorophyll, is white, pinkish, or (rarely) red. If it dries out, it turns black. The leaves are represented only by small scales. A single, odourless, drooping, cup-shaped flower with four or five petals is borne at the tip of the stalk. The fruit is an oval capsule.